When writing this guide, we reached out to the marketer community to collect case studies and learnings about creative marketing strategies. Most of these examples are included throughout the guide, but some didn’t quite fit. So we included those loose ends here, from the perspective of four awesome marketers. What better way to wrap up this guide than with you, our community?

KISSMetrics is a blog that covers a wide range of topics: be it analytics, content marketing, conversion rate optimization, landing pages, lead generation, paid search, SEO, or social media. KISSMetrics is updated daily with fresh ideas that any internet marketer can and should use. The blog is well-known for offering a wide range of free guides on E-commerce SEO which prove to be of a particular value for those who've just started their career in the niche.


Once you have a firm understanding of your audience, dive into your niche even further. For a healthy cooking blog, explore which brands coincide with your philosophies. Will you only support brands that use natural ingredients, are vegan-friendly, biodynamic (whatever that means), or responsibly sourced? Decide what principles you’ll follow to determine the best products for affiliate marketing through your blog.


Take the lead and get a digital marketing certificate. Over 20,000 graduates worldwide and the top digital brands like Facebook, Google, and Twitter validate the course contents. You just getting started in Social Media or want to #BeTheChief at your company, we got you covered. Immediate access available. Watch the video, learn more, and enroll today!
The downside is that Shopify is only appealing for people who have physical or digital products to sell and have a need to set up a Shopify store, including site hosting, payment processing, and all the other services offered by Shopify. This can significantly narrow the appeal for this affiliate program. But if you can distinguish yourself by educating people on how to use Shopify, how it can benefit their business, and/or make them money, you could potentially big money via the affiliate program. Add in the 2 x monthly fee commission rate, and landing just a few sales of their mid-tier and top-tier products can result in significant earnings.
60 Second Marketer is an online magazine that consistently delivers awesome marketing suggestions, tips and ideas. The blog is updated with fresh content almost daily, whereas most of it is practice oriented. 60 Second Marketer is especially notable for publishing outstanding 'how-to' tutorials with enviable constancy and it's the resource newbies should definitely follow if they want their marketing efforts be channeled in the right direction with clear instructions.

Thank you! This is really helpful. I have Amazon Affiliates, but I want to get more intentional with how I use it. The only negative thing I have about the program is that since I live outside of US the only way I can get paid is by amazon gift card, or expensive checks mailed to me. I mean, I can use the money I earn now on Amazon on things I actually need, but I don’t know if it’s worth putting a lot of effort into earning more when I can only use the money on Amazon 😛
On your path to become an affiliate marketer, it isn’t always going to be an easy job. A lot of time and hard work must be dedicated to promoting relevant offers and helping the targeted audience. Some of the pros, however, are never having to create products, just drive the traffic to someone else’s products and earn money while not worrying about any customer support.
Open A Facebook Group For Customer Questions — Create a group that your product specialist, and your customers join. Have you customers post questions they may have about your product and have your experts answer. Give your customers great videos showing them how to use, maintain, and other great information about your product and you will start building a lasting relationship with your customers.
22. Get Positive Reviews – What people say in reviews matters to consumers. In fact, one study determined that 79% of consumers trust online reviews as much as they trust a personal recommendation. And as these reviews are visible in search results, having positive reviews with high rankings can help persuade interested consumers to give your business a chance.
Please note that some of the links below are affiliate links and at no additional cost to you, I may earn a commission. Know that I only recommend products, tools, services and learning resources I’ve personally used and believe are genuinely helpful, not because of the small commissions I make if you decide to purchase them. Most of all, I would never advocate for buying something that you can’t afford or that you’re not yet ready to implement.
Tradedoubler was founded in 1999 by two young Swedish entrepreneurs. They have offices in the UK and multiple countries throughout Europe, including Sweden, Germany, France, Poland and Spain. Their focus has always been to provide smarter results for both clients and affiliates through technology. In 18 years, they’ve amassed an army of 180,000 active publishers, connecting them to over 2,000 merchants in Europe and the UK. Many of these merchants are household names.
Shopify is a very popular site building platform for people interested in building eCommerce stores. It has been around for the past few years and seen significant growth in its user base over this time. You can earn a staggering 200% per sale for every new customer you refer to them, which means that there is up to $2400 per new customer on offer.

As search engines have become more prominent, some affiliate marketers have shifted from sending e-mail spam to creating automatically generated web pages that often contain product data feeds provided by merchants. The goal of such web pages is to manipulate the relevancy or prominence of resources indexed by a search engine, also known as spamdexing. Each page can be targeted to a different niche market through the use of specific keywords, with the result being a skewed form of search engine optimization.
Videos work great for content marketing for three reasons: Certain demographics of users LOVE watching videos; Videos open up more marketing channels (Youtube, Vimeo, etc) Videos are highly engaging: People like sharing videos Social media networks give your update an organic boost when there’s a native video in them Videos get your message across much more effectively than text Your customers expect to find you on Youtube Now, the days… [Read More…]
Content Marketing Institute is a daily updated blog that provides a vast wealth of articles designed to aid in content marketing including case studies, examples, research, tips on strategy and necessary tools. It is worth mentioning that most of the articles contain practical suggestions which make the blog an awesome source of daily ideas and inspiration for a newbie in marketing.
Since you’re essentially a freelancer, you get ultimate independence in setting your own goals, redirecting your path when you feel so inclined, choosing the products that interest you, and even determining your own hours. This convenience means you can diversify your portfolio if you like or focus solely on simple and straightforward campaigns. You’ll also be free from company restrictions and regulations as well as ill-performing teams.
Your marketing strategy will never be successful if you do not have a clearly defined audience. Before you spend a dime on marketing, figure out your target market first. There’s no need to pay top dollar to hire a fancy market research firm. If you know your product, you should be able to figure out your market yourself. For example, who will be most interested in your product? Men or women? What is their age group? What are your customer’s interests? What is their likely financial situation?
Dejan SEO is one of the best SEO related blogs full of helpful tips and up-to-date information on all areas of search engine optimization. The blog is updated once every few days and represents a perfect mixture of the most recent news from the industry to keep you up-to-date and practice-oriented posts explaining advanced SEO techniques and hacks. Dejan SEO is also eminent for pinpointing search engines tricks which normally go unnoticed and is a must-follow resource for novices seeking unconventional approach to SEO.
A huge mistake beginners make is thinking they need to do everything alone. Focus your energy on the most vital areas of your business; the areas that encourage growth and will help you reach your goals faster. If you work on too many projects at once you will find your progress is slow and hindered by many barriers. You can’t be an expert in every discipline, so outsource work where you can. Set aside a budget for delegating work to third parties that prevent you from paying attention to more important areas of your business. Taking on more and more work yourself will see you bogged down unnecessarily in tasks that will significantly slow your progress. Outsourcing will also allow you to have more valuable time away from your computer.
Internet Marketing Ninjas have a blog that serves some of the industry's best link building, marketing and general SEO-related content. The blog's updates arrive every few business days and cover a wide range of topics, reflecting the most recent changes in the field of internet marketing. Keep in mind that Internet Marketing Ninjas are particularly great at providing understandable 'how-to' posts on internet marketing which might be a life saver if you are a newbie in the field.
First and foremost, when it comes to marketing anything online, it's important to understand how money is made and earned. In my phone call with Sharpe, he identified several items that were well worth mentioning. Once you understand where the money comes from and how the industry works, you can then better understand how best to position yourself and your offer so that you can reap the benefits of the making-money-while-you-sleep industry.
A great SEO tactic is to do create one "featured article" where you send all guest post and link building traffic. This post will be the cornerstone of your website and you should focus on getting as many links as possible to this URL. Aim for a target keyword here with 25,000+ searches/month on Google and make sure to shorten the blog URL to only include the focus keyword. For example, Ryan's amazing post "10 Steps: How to Start a Blog on the Side and Make Money in 2018 (The Ultimate Guide)" simply has the URL ending in /how-start-blog/ (and is dominating search engines).
As a rule, local businesses have a number of happy and satisfied customers. For some reason, they forget to remind happy clients to give their honest reviews about the offers they purchased. As a rule, those are the angriest customers that leave reviews about their experience in dealing with a brand. In order to chive a balance of positive and negative reviews about your business, push for the customers to leave their honest feedback. This will help your brand to rank higher in the popular search engines. This is one of the best digital marketing ideas that really work.
Search Engine Journal is a community-based blog that had its ups and downs over the years. Even now the resource is flooded with a mixture of articles that are pure gold and the ones that can be misleading. Yet, Search Engine Journal is one of the few sources where a newbie can get to know the latest SEO trends firsthand. The video interviews published here are a great and burdenless way to learn about the most recent developments from the industry's leaders and see what they're up to professionally.
What’s the point of even having a website if it doesn’t look nice on every device? 61% of users are unlikely to return to a mobile site they had trouble accessing. If your site is not responsive, those potential customers will find another business. More and more people are making purchases through mobile devices so make sure that your website is mobile friendly.
If you try to sell a product that is in low demand then chances are that you are not going to get many sales no matter how hard you try. So it is a good idea to spend a bit of time researching and finding out if a product that you are thinking of promoting is a product that your audience needs. If your site gets decent traffic then you can conduct an online survey and easily get input from your visitors.
The new digital era has enabled brands to selectively target their customers that may potentially be interested in their brand or based on previous browsing interests. Businesses can now use social media to select the age range, location, gender and interests of whom they would like their targeted post to be seen by. Furthermore, based on a customer's recent search history they can be ‘followed’ on the internet so they see advertisements from similar brands, products and services,[38] This allows businesses to target the specific customers that they know and feel will most benefit from their product or service, something that had limited capabilities up until the digital era.
The criteria and metrics can be classified according to its type and time span. Regarding the type, we can either evaluate these campaigns "Quantitatively" or "Qualitatively". Quantitative metrics may include "Sales Volume" and "Revenue Increase/Decrease". While qualitative metrics may include the enhanced "Brand awareness, image and health" as well as the "relationship with the customers".
SEOmoz Blog - Where would we be without SEO? Search engine rankings have dictated the success (or lack thereof) of many a website, and it goes without saying that you want the best rankings possible. Many of the blogs mentioned here discuss search engine tactics, but SEO is the stated focus of the SEOmoz blog. If you follow this blog regularly, you'll gain a very good grasp of the SEO field.
A sound product strategy is a must for new affiliate marketers. Ideally, you should choose a niche that you can make money online with and has a lot of product vendors. This will give you a wide selection of products to offer your online community. However, limit yourself to two or three products at a time, so that you become the expert others turn to and trust when reaching for their wallet.
Find the top blogs in your niche and submit your pieces to be posted as a guest blogger. If possible, introduce yourself and get to know the blogger before sending your pitch to increase your likelihood of being picked up. There are a number of cold email templates you can use to start the conversation. Guest blogging will help increase awareness about your blog, but you also need to include an author bio (typically positioned at the bottom of the blog) with a link connecting readers to your website or an opt-in page to receive an email when you post new blogs.
The first thing Jessica advises to a beginner is to install an app called “Profit Bandit”. This app scans the barcode on any item to see if it’s recognized by Amazon. If it is, the app tells you the current selling price of the product and thereby you can gauge the profit that you’ll get by selling the item. The app also shows a rating of the best selling items which can help you buy things that are in demand.
Shawn’s Affiliate Marketing Blog provides the latest industry news and advice on how to make money online. Like many other bloggers on this list, Shawn is honest in saying that you won’t get rich through affiliate marketing, but you can make a little extra cash on the side. He also only endorses the products and services that he uses himself, so you can rest assured that these are quality products/services.

This guide is designed for you to read cover-to-cover. Each new chapter builds upon the previous one. A core idea that we want to reinforce is that marketing should be evaluated holistically. What you need to do is this in terms of growth frameworks and systems as opposed to campaigns. Reading this guide from start to finish will help you connect the many moving parts of marketing to your big-picture goal, which is ROI.
With possibly the most transparent affiliate network online, we give affiliates access to stats no other program dare, including earning data, conversion stats, demographic information and seasonality trends. With ethics and consumer protection being high on the agenda, you can rest assured when working with MoreNiche you are working with an honest, trustworthy and transparent company.
There are so many visual marketing tools out there that it is turning what used to be a rather arduous task into a simple process anyone can do in half the time. No one has a single excuse for why they aren’t implementing visuals of all kinds into they social media and website content. It is just so easy these days, and it takes hardly any effort at all. But… [Read More…]
Okay. Okay. There is a lot to learn. However, everyone has to start somewhere. If you're just being introduced to internet marketing, and you've become bedazzled by the glitz and the glamor of the top online income earners, know that it's not going to be easy to replicate their success. Be sure that you set your expectations the proper way. As long as you stay persistent, you can achieve your goals of generating healthy amounts of money online without becoming the victim of a scam.
Thank you! This is really helpful. I have Amazon Affiliates, but I want to get more intentional with how I use it. The only negative thing I have about the program is that since I live outside of US the only way I can get paid is by amazon gift card, or expensive checks mailed to me. I mean, I can use the money I earn now on Amazon on things I actually need, but I don’t know if it’s worth putting a lot of effort into earning more when I can only use the money on Amazon 😛
Content marketing is more than just blogging. When executed correctly, content including articles, guides (like this one), webinars, and videos can be powerful growth drivers for your business. Focus on building trust and producing amazing quality. And most of all, make sure that you’re capturing the right metrics. Create content to generate ROI. Measure the right results. This chapter will teach you how.
“Effective marketing initiatives have goals and measures of success,” says Lee Odden in a Top Rank Blog post.  “Blogs as marketing and PR tools are no different.  Some measurable effects from business blogging include: media attention, inbound links to the blog, search engine ranking for the blog, leads/sales initiated, volume of traffic to the blog, etc.”

There is no need to waste your time on the conceptualization of what kind of a web design your business site should feature. Take a look at the examples of some of the most successful businesses in your niche. What tricks and hacks do those use on their web platforms? Learn from their example and create your own design (but don't copy your competitors!).
Putting up a website in the internet is step one of the tough road to successful internet marketing. Step one doesn’t give you everything – it’s just the foundation. After you’ve created and established an online presence, you have to make sure to follow up with other online business needs. Such as, as earlier stated, a blog (ahem!), Social network integration (ahem ahem!), and yours truly, SEO (ahem ahem ahem!). My advanced package answers all of those needs by the way. Just in case you’re interested. Just saying.
SkimLinks works very similarly to VigLinks in that it is designed for bloggers who don’t want to do a lot of hands-on work to participate in an affiliate program. SkimLinks also works much like VigLinks in that it uses a plugin or script to create dynamic links in your content to send visitors to higher paying offers from merchants. SkimLinks claims to work with over 24,000 merchants/advertisers.
Given that I am still in reading and preparation phase, I am mainly interested to overlap my niche with real life interests so I could have motivation to produce content on regular basis. Two that I am highly interested are PC parts and Fitness. I am aware they are too general subjects with lot of sites doing the same, but my idea is to produce constant review on PC parts, Laptops, Mobile devices, Accessories all in different categories, create lists like top5 or 10 under XX budget etc. Similar approach I would use if I I decide to go with Fitness path and divide content training advice, review of fat loss methods, supplementation, nutrition etc. I am aware that this will be a long journey and that it can pass few months before sales start to kick in and that’s the risk I am ready to take. My questions are:

Derek Halpern saves you the hassle of going through social media marketing literature by providing the how-to’s related to product profitability and persuasion. There are insightful tips on how to share valuable content to build your network and client trust.  Turn that traffic into subscribers, and encourage people to purchase your products by following this blog.
For a service provider brand, these memberships and awards go a long way, more so than an e-commerce website. When someone is making an impulse purchase online for a $20 or $30 product, they aren’t digging as deep as they would be if they were hiring a moving company or a general contractor. The BBB, for example, is something all local service providers should leverage online.
DMI is a global digital marketing professional learning and certification body with over 27,000 alumni members and partners in over 100 countries. Founded in Ireland with a US office in Dallas, it is backed by Spectrum Equity, a leading U.S. based growth equity firm. Customers include IBM, Black & Decker, Microsoft, PwC, University of Utah and University of Vermont. DMI’s Global Industry Advisory Council, consisting of marketers from Coca-Coca, Facebook, Google, HubSpot, LinkedIn, IBM, IAB, WPP and more, provides input and to DMI’s certification programs and industry trends.
Video advertising - This type of advertising in terms of digital/online means are advertisements that play on online videos e.g. YouTube videos. This type of marketing has seen an increase in popularity over time.[51] Online Video Advertising usually consists of three types: Pre-Roll advertisements which play before the video is watched, Mid-Roll advertisements which play during the video, or Post-Roll advertisements which play after the video is watched.[52] Post-roll advertisements were shown to have better brand recognition in relation to the other types, where-as "ad-context congruity/incongruity plays an important role in reinforcing ad memorability".[51] Due to selective attention from viewers, there is the likelihood that the message may not be received.[53] The main advantage of video advertising is that it disrupts the viewing experience of the video and therefore there is a difficulty in attempting to avoid them. How a consumer interacts with online video advertising can come down to three stages: Pre attention, attention, and behavioural decision.[54] These online advertisements give the brand/business options and choices. These consist of length, position, adjacent video content which all directly affect the effectiveness of the produced advertisement time,[51] therefore manipulating these variables will yield different results. Length of the advertisement has shown to affect memorability where-as longer duration resulted in increased brand recognition.[51] This type of advertising, due to its nature of interruption of the viewer, it is likely that the consumer may feel as if their experience is being interrupted or invaded, creating negative perception of the brand.[51] These advertisements are also available to be shared by the viewers, adding to the attractiveness of this platform. Sharing these videos can be equated to the online version of word by mouth marketing, extending number of people reached.[55] Sharing videos creates six different outcomes: these being "pleasure, affection, inclusion, escape, relaxation, and control".[51] As well, videos that have entertainment value are more likely to be shared, yet pleasure is the strongest motivator to pass videos on. Creating a ‘viral’ trend from mass amount of a brands advertisement can maximize the outcome of an online video advert whether it be positive or a negative outcome.
Affiliate marketing is one of the absolute best ways to make money online with your blog, but in order to be successful and build yourself as an authority in your niche, you must create valuable content and build a relationship with your audience. Monetizing your blog through affiliate marketing can help grow your reach while creating a lucrative and evergreen revenue source.
Note: I highly recommend taking a couple of months to add great content and build your social media following before you start trying to monetize your blog. This will allow you to build trust with your audience before you start trying to sell something! And once you’re ready to dive headfirst into affiliate marketing, the next four steps are waiting for you!
Of course, our checklist cannot go without a mention about SEO as one of the essential online marketing tips 2018. For your web address to be displayed in the top ten results of major search engines (Google, Yahoo, Bing, etc.), can optimize the URL, include target keywords in the content, and write blog posts on popular resources as a guest contributor (more SEO hacks here ).
The first mistake a lot of affiliate marketers make is that they register with too many different affiliate programs and try to promote everything. Pursuing affiliate marketing down this path can become very overwhelming and you won’t be able to promote any product properly. All you need in order to be successful is a handful of good products to promote. Try to understand the market needs and look for products that align correctly with the topic of your site.
The more content on your site, the more opportunities there are for search engines to pick it up. Blogging can be a great (and free!) way to generate leads and links into your site. But don’t just be producing content to produce content. Write quality blog posts that will engage the readers. Guest blogging on more established blogs is another way to get more traffic to your own site.
Best Forex Partners (BFP) was established in 2011 by a group of international financiers and global online marketing professionals who saw a need to change the nature of affiliate marketing for the better.  In a few short years they combined their over 60 years of combined financial and marketing experience to create a new way to affiliate market and have never looked back!
Earning income via Target affiliates, however, requires a bit of work. Cookies expire in just seven days, and commissions can be as low as just one percent, so you’ll need to be operating a high-traffic website in order to make serious cash with this program. But with Target’s much-beloved brand reputation and vast catalog, relevant product links can be a big earner for established influencers.
12. Online Contests. You’ll need to cough up some dough for a prize, but the number of participants and new potential leads you get will be well worth the price. Really tight on budget? You don’t technically need a super expensive prize to get participants. Even a couple high-end water bottles or fancy backpacks might be enough of a draw for some users.
Users are much more likely to “like” and share content that includes some imagery. Short text tweets should be transformed into eye-catching graphics with the same message. Writing a blog post with plenty of stats and facts? Consider turning it into an infographic, one of the most-shared forms of content. And just about any blog post will be more powerful with a short video.

9. Lounge About on LinkedIn. LinkedIn is a major social media site that is often under-utilized. Don’t just add network connections and sign out – join groups, enter into dialogue with connections, and share your blog posts. There’s a ton happening on LinkedIn, and it can be a great place to promote your content, share ideas, and build your brand. Larry recently shared some tips for getting more LinkedIn connections, and here are some ways to spruce up your LinkedIn profile if you’re a recent college grad.


There are a number of ways brands can use digital marketing to benefit their marketing efforts. The use of digital marketing in the digital era not only allows for brands to market their products and services, but also allows for online customer support through 24/7 services to make customers feel supported and valued. The use of social media interaction allows brands to receive both positive and negative feedback from their customers as well as determining what media platforms work well for them. As such, digital marketing has become an increased advantage for brands and businesses. It is now common for consumers to post feedback online through social media sources, blogs and websites on their experience with a product or brand.[25] It has become increasingly popular for businesses to use and encourage these conversations through their social media channels to have direct contact with the customers and manage the feedback they receive appropriately.


No. Before you get too excited, you must understand one very important thing. Affiliate marketing for beginners can be hard. It is, after all, a business. It is not a get rich quick scheme, and no honest affiliate manager will ever tell you it is. It requires patience, perseverance and heaps of learning. Sometimes it can take years to achieve the results you really want to see, although with the help of our affiliate management team, we hope you would see them much sooner than that!
Tara Banda is a brand-builder, copywriter, and social media marketer in Dallas, TX. She has worked with businesses of all sizes — from Fortune 500 companies to local non-profits to startups — to define their voice, promote their brand online through digital marketing, and build lasting relationships with fans and advocates.  Tara is a currently a Content Marketing Manager at ReachLocal. In her spare time, she is obsessed with learning recipes for international cuisines. You can learn more about her on LinkedIn or Twitter.
When it comes to digital marketing, there’s always more to learn. New technology and changing trends mean that if you don’t make an effort to regularly do research, you’ll be at constant risk of falling behind. Luckily, a number of great digital marketing blogs stay on top of the most important digital marketing news and trends you should be aware of. Add these to your list of subscriptions to stay in the know.
For most bloggers and site owners, Google is the primary source of site traffic. It’s safe to assume that a majority of your site visitors will come this way. In order to have your content displayed prominently in search results, it’s important to not only have good and unique content, but also new content. This is one of the main reasons why you should regularly post new articles.
Thanks Nathalie! And glad to see you came over from AONC 🙂 When done the right way I think affiliate links in context are much less intrusive and offensive than having ads on your sidebar. The average non-tech reader probably wont even know its an affiliate link anyway. So just by doing everything you’ve already been doing, you can switch out links, and probably make a nice side income!
Are you an expert in conversion optimisation, sales funnels, SEO, website building, copywriting and proofreading? If so, you have a better chance than most newcomers. Chances are, if you’ve only just heard about affiliate marketing, you don’t have all or even any of these skills just yet. In this case, settle down for the long haul. This is going to take some time, but you will get there – as long as you don’t give up along the way!
Awesome article! This is jam packed with great info. I am just starting a personal finance blog with my fiance and we were a little confused about how to start monetizing. We were initially thinking about using Google AdSense but between this post and another blog I read I am surely convinced that’s not the correct route. I’m really happy you have shared this information because it’s provided an excellent starting point for creating income.
A pop-up on your website allows you to collect information such as email addresses, from people who visit your site. You can also use a popup to offer a coupon code or discount to first time customers to further entice them to continue to your site or buy your product or service. Combine them for the ultimate popup: A coupon in exchange for an email address. Popups are so helpful because once you create them, they do all the work for you.
Missy Ward has been involved with affiliate marketing since 1999 and co-founded Affiliate Summit with Shawn Collins in 2003 on a mere $400 investment. Affiliate Summit is now a multi-million dollar company that produces conferences, tradeshows, FeedFront Magazine, GeekCast.fm, and AffStat.com. Missy is also the co-founder of itsaWAHMthing.com, founder of AffiliateMarketersGiveBack.com and is in charge of a number of her own niche affiliate websites.
One of the most important strategies a blogger can participate in is creating an email list. And once you have this list of loyal readers, you should place affiliate links inside of your email content. Better yet, you should have a welcome email series that builds trust with your audience and eventually links to the products you want to promote. But don’t get spammy with your email links. Make sure to provide excellent and useful content first, then sprinkle in a few affiliate links to the main products you want to promote in later emails in the series.
If you decide to go into affiliate marketing, understand that you will need a lot of very targeted traffic if you want to make any real money. Those affiliate offers also need to provide a high commission amount to you on each sale. You also need to ensure that the returns or chargebacks for those products or services are low. The last thing you want to do is to sell a product or service that provides very little value and gets returned often.
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